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Table EYE-2. Recent school surveys (2003-2005): lifetime percentage prevalence (LTP) of psychoactive substance use and last month prevalence (LMP) of cannabis among students aged 17 to 18 years

CountryNotes YearRef.ProjectAge range (years) / cohortSample sizeCannabis LTPCannabis LMPInhalants / volatile substances LTPAmphet- amines LTPEcstasy LTPLSD and other halluc- inogens LTPCocaine LTPHeroin LTP
Belgium (Flemish)2003-20045VAD17 to 1833947na786762
Belgium (Flemish)2004-20056VAD17 to1830543na568652
Bulgaria2003ESPADborn in 1985319433132
Czech Republic(c) (d)2003ESPADborn in 19854830562268111223
Greece2003ESPAD17 to 1812991671313331
Spain20045PNSD17 to 185935101010191
France(b) (c)20033ESPAD17 to 181977593113252241
Italy (a)2003ESPAD17 to 1851304324834473
Italy (a)2004417 to 184418622453
Italy (a)200517 to 18787434?
Cyprus (d)2003ESPAD14 to 1721401010
Cyprus (e)2004117 to 1973
Latvia2003ESPAD17 to 181640266564211
Hungary(f)2003ESPAD14 to 22371741212843
Netherlands20032JRG11 to 18441858951
Austria(c)2003ESPAD17 to 1868637181557552
Poland200517 to 18473736136155422
Portugal(a)2003ESPAD17 to 1825662711624411
Slovakia2003ESPAD15 to 1931173912857421
Sweden20036CAN17 to 184245143522111
Sweden20046CAN17 to 184494143523110
Sweden2005CAN17 to 184627144722110


 This table aims to present data on 17- to 18-year-old school students obtained from national surveys. It should be noted that in countries where the permitted school leaving age is lower than 18 years these data may not be representative for this age group. Surveys marked ESPAD were carried out using ESPAD methods to varying degrees. The surveys for Belgium (Flemish) is the Flemish region only. In all of the school surveys the method for data collection was classroom based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaires in written test conditions.            

 Caution is required comparing figures due to methodological limitations. For methods and definitions see Studies of youth and the schools populations – methods and definitions.           

 (a) Figures for Italy in 2004 and 2005 and Portugal in 2003 are based on combined average prevalence for 17- and 18-year-old students, which does not allow for possible difference in sample size between the two age groups.            

 (b) LSD and other hallucinogens: includes LSD only.                      

 (c) Cocaine: cocaine powder only.                        

 (d) Heroin: opiates.                            

 (e) To be interpreted with caution as sample size is small and private and vocational schools are excluded.            

 (f) Budapest only.                            

 See also 'General notes for interpreting data' on the Explanatory notes and help page.               


Page last updated: Thursday, 08 November 2007