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Table INF-3. Prevalence of markers for HBV infection among injecting drug users in the EU, 2005 or most recent year available - Summary table by country

Country or regionYearNumber tested% positive aHBc(1)% positive aHBs(1)% positive HBsAg(1)Setting/comments (2) (3) (4) (5)References
Belgium2005365[8.1][10.8-50.5][0.0-3.00]LTS, DTC; serum8 ; 14
Bulgaria2005819[6.1]DTC, NSP, LTS, outreach; 4 sites.2 ; 3
Czech Republic
Denmark 2004-053253537aHBc, aHBs: ODD; All drug related deaths who have a blood sample taken at autopsy; IDUnk7
Ireland 200363[17.5][86.4][0.0]DTC; serum14
Germany 2004941[53.0]DTC, Vacination study; serum; IDUnk4 ; 24
Greece 2005190434.9 [0.0-38.0]39.5 [13.5-47.5]2.3-3.1 [0.0-10.5]DTC, LTS, OHC, PHL; serum1 ; 2 ; 9
Spain2003613[22.5]STR, Heroin users recruited in community; dried blood spots29 ; 34
Italy20056139641.8 [17.5-91.2]DTC, PRI; serum; IDUnk. All markers.31
CyprusDTC, PRI; serum1
Lithuania2005919[9.5-12.9]NSP, LTS; serum, dried blood spots8 ; 5
Luxembourg 200550818.4-35.954.9-75.03.9DTC, NSP, LTS, STI, ANT, OHC, PRI; serum6
Hungary2005820.0PHL; serum; IDUnk5
Malta20051180.0DTC; serum2
Netherlands2000405[35.2][3.0]DTC, NSP, LTS, Surveys in and outside drug treatment; serum9 ; 14a ; 14b
Austria2004242[0.0-28.0]LTS, PHL, GPS, HTC, NSP; serum. All markers.4 ; 7 ; 8
Poland2004-05766[23.6-66.7][31.5-34.5][1.2-8.5]DTC, LTS, PRI, STR; serum6
Portugal2003-05587316.0-28.020.0-33.01.8-9.0DTC, outpatient units, therapeutic communities, detoxification units, Public detoxification units; dried blood spots, serum; IDUnk22 ; 23 ; 24
Romania2004-05173[6.9-10.3]DTC, serum2
Slovenia2002-049804.13.4aHBc. DTC; serum1
United Kingdom20051058[9.0-42.0]DTC, NSP, LTS, PRI, primary care and outreach; saliva, dried blood spots36
Norway2005258[42.0][0.8]NSP, STR; serum.8


 This summary table gives a global overview of prevalence of HBV markers in IDUs in the EU, 2004-2005 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables 14-15 in the annex of this statistical bulletin.   

 n.a.= not available   

 Sample size is mostly equal for the different HBV markers, where this is not the case the smallest sample size is shown.    

 (1) The figures given in brackets show local estimates (or range of estimates) within the country.   

 (2) Saliva tests for hepatitis B antibodies underestimate prevalence. If test sensitivity is known then figures can be adjusted upwards by dividing prevalence by test sensitivity. Figures have not been adjusted.   

 (3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities (Greece, Portugal, Rome), due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data. On the other hand, data from Italy and Portugal include non-IDUs and may thus underestimate prevalence in IDUs. Data for Italy and Austria are not prevalence of aHBc but prevalence of 'all HBV markers' as a proxy of aHBc prevalence.   

 (4) IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence may be too low.   

 (5) ODD = overdose deaths; DEM = drug emergencies; DTC = drug treatment centres; NSP = needle exchanges; LTS = low-threshold services; PHL = public health laboratories; STI = STI clinics; ANT = antenatal clinics; OHC = other hospital or clinics; PRI = prisons; ARR = arrests; GPS = general practitioners; HTC = HIV testing centres; STR = street; OTH = other.   


 See Tables INF 14-15.   

Page last updated: Wednesday, 07 November 2007