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Table EYE-1. Recent school surveys (2003–06): percentage lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use among students aged 15–16 years old

CountryYearReferenceProjectSample sizeCannabisInhalants/volatile substancesAmphetaminesEcstasyLSD and other hallucinogensCocaineHeroin
Belgium2003ESPAD232032724331
Belgium (Flemish)2006HBSC(WHO)Ext270526334231
Bulgaria2003ESPAD274021323221
Czech Republic2003ESPAD319544948611
Czech Republic2006HBSC(WHO)Ext166525922
Denmark2003ESPAD297823842121
Germany(2)2003ESPAD5110271153321
Estonia2003ESPAD246323875211
Ireland2003ESPAD2407391815231
Greece2003ESPAD190661502111
Spain(1)20061PNSD36333441
France2003ESPAD2199381123132
Italy2003ESPAD487127633344
Italy 20055National survey1563317411222
Cyprus2003ESPAD215241800000
Cyprus(3)(5)20041National survey91564
Latvia2003ESPAD284116733111
Lithuania2003ESPAD503613552211
Hungary2003ESPAD267716533211
Malta2003ESPAD3500101611111
Netherlands2003ESPAD209528615231
Austria2003ESPAD2402211443221
Poland2003ESPAD596418953222
Poland20051National survey14843221
Portugal2003ESPAD294615834232
Romania2003ESPAD43713101010
Slovenia2003ESPAD2785281513111
Slovakia2006National survey174525633211
Finland2003ESPAD354311811101
Sweden2003ESPAD32327812111
Sweden(1)20051CAN55146811000
United Kingdom2003ESPAD2068381235241
United Kingdom (England)(3)(4)20051NatCen/NFER1907341735661
United Kingdom (England)(3)(4)20061NatCen/NFER1841291434651
United Kingdom (Scotland)(3)(4)20061Scottish Gov.1198025535452
Norway2003ESPAD38339522111
Turkey(2)2003ESPAD41774422222
United States of America(6)(7)20051NIDA162003413114652

Notes:

 This table presents data on 15- to 16-year-old school students obtained from national surveys. The surveys for Belgium (Flemish ) is the Flemish region only, and the Germany and Turkish ESPAD is limited to the regions specified in note (b). In all of the school surveys, the method for data collection was classroom-based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaires in written test conditions.         

 Caution is required comparing figures due to methodological limitations. For methods and definitions, see Methods and definitions: youth and the schools population.         

 ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) is coordinated by the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) and the Council of Europe (Pompidou Group). ESPAD prevalence figures are taken from published ESPAD reports and may differ sometimes from those reported directly by Member States. The sample sizes given refer to the number of participating 15- to 16-year-old students who filled in the questionnaire.         

 (1) ESPAD methods are adopted to varying degrees.         

 (2) ESPAD 2003 Germany figures are based in six regions only (Bavaria, Brandenburg, Berlin, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Thuringia). Turkey figures are based on one major city in each of six different regions (Adana, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Istanbul, Izmir and Samsun).         

 (3) The sample size given for these surveys is for a wider age range than 15 to 16 years.         

 (4) Only 15-year-old students are included in United Kingdom ONS and Scottish Executive school surveys.          

 (5) To be interpreted with caution as sample size is small and private and vocational schools are excluded.         

 (6) Inhalants are adjusted for under-reporting of butyl nitrites.         

 (7) Amphetamines includes only drug use not under a doctor's order.         

 See also 'General notes for interpreting data' on the Explanatory notes and help page.           

Sources:

 See Table EYE-0 for further information on sources.         

(see the help page for information about formats etc.)

Page last updated: Monday, 14 July 2008