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Table INF-1. Prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the EU, 2008 or most recent year available — Summary table by country.

Country or region% Infected (1)
YearNumber testedNational samplesSub-national samplesStudy design (2) Setting/comments (3, 4, 5) References
Belgium2008528:3.3-6.4DT ; SRLTS, DTC; serum22 ; 24
Bulgaria2008759:2.2DTDTC, NSP, LTS, HTC; serum6
Czech Republic200844200.1-0.6:DT ; SRSTI, OHC, PRI, HTC, DTC, LTS, NSP, GPS; serum, saliva, capillary blood23 ; 24 ; 25
Denmark 20061882.1:SP (UAT)ODD, 5 sites; IDUnk7 ; 8
Germany 200713943.4:DTODD; autopsy rates 62%; Drug related deaths throught accident, long term effects, suicide. IDUnk30 ; 31
Estonia2005449:54.3 - 89.9SPLTS; dried blood spots4
Ireland 200364:12.5SPDTC, serum14
Greece 200815630.1-0.7 0.0-0.8DTDTC, LTS, PHL, OHC, 42 sites; serum1 ; 2 ; 9
Spain2007864334.5:DTDTC; serum.39
France 2006698:5.1-8.0SP (UAT) ; SRNSP, LTS, STR; saliva19 ; 21
Italy 20086398911.72.0-37.5DTDTC, 522 sites; serum IDUnk47
Cyprus20083180.0-1.6:DT ; SP ; SRDTC; serum5 ; 8 ; 9
Latvia2007407:22.6SP (UAT)NSP; serum12
Lithuania20061853:0.6–9.7DT ; SPHTC, NSP, LTS, 22 sites; serum, dried blood spots; IDUnk §1 ; 6 ; 8 ; 11 ; 12 ; 99
Luxembourg20081711.8:SRDTC, Register of specialized drugs, 9 sites.8
Hungary20087750.00SPDTC, NSP, STR, OTH; serum, dried blood spots15 ; 17
Malta20061750:DTDTC, NSP, 1 site; serum2 ; 3 ; 5
Netherlands2008132:1.7-8.2DT ; SPDTC, Homeless housing projects, 13 sites; serum27 ; 33
Austria20087431.0-10.70.0-1.9DTNSP, LTS, ODD, DTC, 46 sites; serum7 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12 ; 13
Poland200817139.2:DTPHL, HTC; serum10
Portugal200878469.2-18.4:DTDTC, Outpatient units, Therapeutic communities, Public detoxification units; dried blood spots; IDUnk §29
Romania2007-086071.10.8-1.6DT ; SRDTC, NSP, LTS, 66 sites; serum, dried blood spots, urine2 ; 4
Slovenia20084420.00.0SP (UAT) ; DTNSP, DTC, LTS, 21 sites ; saliva, serum3 ; 4
Slovakia200897:1.0DTDTC, 1 site7
Finland 200736450.1-1.30.6DT ; SPNSP, PRI, 46 sites; serum, saliva; IDUnk §6 ; 7
Sweden2007-081206:0.0-8.4SP ; DTLTS, STR, PRI,OHC, DTC, 218 sites; serum8 ; 10 ; 12
United Kingdom20085590:0.5-3.9SP (UAT)DTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, STR, primary care and outreach, named HIV tests; saliva, serum38 ; 48
Croatia2007-087780.00.0SPDTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, HTC, PRI; serum1
Norway200840772.80.6SPNSP, DTC, LTS, 24 sites; serum16 ; 17


 This summary table gives a global overview of HIV prevalence in IDUs in the EU, 2007–08 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables INF-108, INF-109, and INF-110 .   

 n.a. = not available   

 (1) The figures show estimates (or range of estimates) from National and/or Sub-National level samples.   

 (2) Self-reported test results are less reliable than biological test results.   

 DT: Diagnostic testing; SP: Seroprevalence study; SP-UAT: Seroprevalence study with unlinked anonymous testing; RDS: Respondent-driven sampling; SR: Data (partly) based on self reported test results.   

 (3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities (Greece, Portugal, Rome), due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data. On the other hand, data from Italy and Portugal include non-IDUs and may thus underestimate prevalence in IDUs.    

 (4) IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence in IDUs is likely to be underestimated.   

 (5) ODD = Overdose Deaths; DEM = Drug Emergencies; DTC = Drug Treatment Centres; NSP = Needle Exchanges; LTS = Low-Threshold Services; PHL = Public Health Laboratories; STI = STI Clinics; ANT = Antenatal Clinics; OHC = Other Hospital or Clinics; PRI = Prisons; ARR = Arrests; GPS = General Practitioners; HTC = HIV Testing Centres; STR = Street; OTH = Other.   

 § - IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence may be too low.         

 Lithuania: One of the six studies available is IDUnk (Sub-National: N=799; 1.9% infected).   

 Finland: One of the three studies available is IDUnk (National: N= 1363; 0.1% infected).   

 Portugal: Two of three studies are IDUnk (All National: N=4436; 13.9% infected and N=2381; 9.2% infected)               


 See Table INF-108 .   

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Page last updated: Thursday, 20 January 2011