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Table INF-3. Prevalence of markers for HBV infection among injecting drug users in the EU, 2008 or most recent year available — Summary table by country

Country or region% positive aHBc(1)% positive aHBs(1)% positive HBsAg(1)
YearNumber testedYearNNational samplesSub-National samplesYearNNational samplesSub-National samplesYearNNational samplesSub-National samplesSetting/comments (2) (3) (4) (5)References
Belgium2008361:2.6 - 57.32008376:18.4 - 50.22008382:1.9 - 4.0LTS, DTC; serum22 ; 24
Bulgaria::::::::2008704:5.5DTC, NSP, LTS, HTC; serum6
Czech Republic::::::::::::::::
Denmark 200618637.1:200810137.0:::::ODD, 5 sites; post mortem blood. IDUnk8
Germany 2004801:53.0::::::::DTC, Vacination study; serum; IDUnk24
Ireland 200363:17.5200338:86.4:::0.0DTC, 1 site; serum14
Greece 2008102814.6 - 26.33.2 - 30.02008103925.0 - 35.46.3 - 83.3200815762.3 - 2.70.0 - 11.8DTC, LTS, OHC, PHL; serum1 ; 2 ; 9
Spain2003613:22.5::::::::STR; dried blood spots29 ; 34
France ::::::::::::::::
Italy20085889837.289.1::::::::DTC, 515 sites; serum; IDUnk. All markers.46
Cyprus::::::::20081290.0:DTC; serum8 ; 9
Lithuania2006526:63.92006324:54.92006668:3.3–8.9HTC, LTS, 16 sites ; serum, dried blood spots5
Luxembourg 200549318.4 - 35.9:200550254.9 - 75.3:20052553.9:DTC, NSP, LTS, STI, ANT, OHC, PRI; serum6
Hungary::::::::20085900.5:DTC, NSP, 18 sites; dried blodd spots15
Malta20061510.7:::::::::DTC; serum5
Netherlands200825:44.0200825:52.0::::DTC, 5 sites; serum27
Austria200863819.01.8 - 19.4::::::::LTS, DTC, NSP, 45 sites; serum. All markers.7 ; 8; 10 ; 11 ; 12 ; 13
Poland2004–052005343:24.4 - 55.72004382:31.5 - 34.52005347:1.2–8.5DTC, LTS, PRI, STR; serum6
Portugal2003-072003534516.0 - 28.0:2003535520.0 - 33.0:200869332.7 - 6.1:DTC, ; dried blood spots; IDUnk §29
Romania::::::::2007113:11.5DTC, 1 sites; serum2
Slovenia20082134.2:::::::::DTC, 1 site; serum1
Finland ::::::::::::::::
Sweden::::::::::2008522:60.1PRI, 3 sites; serum12
United Kingdom20083207:5.3 - 20.9::::::::DTC, NSP, LTS, primary care and outreach; saliva45 ; 46
Croatia2007/0870524.07.5 - 13.3200870615.04.7 - 13.22007/087910.50.0PRI, DTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, HTC; serum1
Norway2008172:41.32008100:43.02008172:1.2NSP, LTS, 10 sites; serum.16


 This summary table gives a global overview of prevalence of HBV markers in IDUs in the EU, 2007–08 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables INF-114 and INF-115

 Sample size is mostly equal for the different HBV markers, where this is not the case the smallest sample size is shown.  

 (1) The figures show estimates (or range of estimates) from national and/or sub-national level samples. 

 (2) Saliva tests for hepatitis B antibodies underestimate prevalence. If test sensitivity is known then figures can be adjusted upwards by dividing prevalence by test sensitivity. Figures have not been adjusted. 

 (3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities (Greece, Portugal, Rome), due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data. On the other hand, data from Italy and Portugal include non-IDUs and may thus underestimate prevalence in IDUs. Data for Italy and Austria are not prevalence of aHBc but prevalence of 'all HBV markers' as a proxy of aHBc prevalence. 

 (4) IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence in IDUs is likely to be underestimated. 

 (5) ODD = Overdose Deaths; DEM = Drug Emergencies; DTC = Drug Treatment Centres; NSP = Needle Exchanges; LTS = Low-Threshold Services; PHL = Public Health Laboratories; STI = STI Clinics; ANT = Antenatal Clinics; OHC = Other Hospital or Clinics; PRI = Prisons; ARR = Arrests; GPS = General Practitioners; HTC = HIV Testing Centres; STR = Street; OTH = Other. 

 § - IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence may be too low.                                     

 Portugal: aHBc and aHBs: All studies are IDUnk. HBsAg: Two of three studies are IDUnk (N=1441; 2.7% infected and N=4478; 6.1% infected)                                     


 See Tables INF-114 and INF-115.  

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Page last updated: Wednesday, 07 July 2010