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Table PDU-1. Estimates of prevalence of problem drug use at national level: summary table, 2003–08, rate per 1000 aged 15–64 [see all tables in this series...]

Part (iii) Problem opioid use

CountryNotesYearCentral rate/1000 ages 15–64Lower and Upper rates/1000 ages 15-64 [1]Estimated Number of usersLower and upper bound of prevalence estimates [1]Target group, data sources and estimation methodsReference
Czech Republic120081.51.4-1.61130010600-12000Problem opioid users. Low-threshold facilities. Treatment Multiplier.2
Germany2 *2008n.a.1.5-2.511129585235-137354Problem opioid users. Drug related deaths, Police. Mortality and Police multiplier.27
Ireland120067.26.2-8.12079018136-23576Problem opioid users. Treatment data, Hospitals. Capture-recapture.3 ; 4
Greece120082.72.3-3.12018117502-23391Problem drug users. Drug treatment data. Capture-recapture.3
Spain20061.41.3-1.44103638719-43649Problem opioid users. Drug treatement and surveys data. Treatment Multiplier.3
Italy120085.55.3-5.7210000204000-216000Problem opioid users. Treatment, Criminal Justice and Prison data. Multivariate method.25
Cyprus1*20081.51.2-1.8808668-1008Problem opioid users. Treatment data. Truncated Poisson.7
Luxembourg20075.95.0-7.619001608-2463Problem heroin users. Drug-related deaths, criminal justice system, drug treatment, infectious diseases registries and methadone programmes. Multi-methods: Treament multiplier, Police multiplier, mortality multiplier, Capture-recapture and Truncated Poisson.4
Malta120065.75.5-6.016061541-1685Problem drug users defined as daily heroin users. Treatment data. Capture-recapture.3
Austria120074.14.04.32317822198-24157(Poly-) drug use including opiates. Treatment and Police data. Capture-recapture.1
Poland2 ; 720051.00.9-1.12700025000-29000Problem opioid drug users. General population survey and Treatment data. Benchmark method.9
Slovakia120081.31.0-2.548883966-9782Problem opioid users. Low-threshold agencies. Multiplier method.7
Finland1 ; 420051.21.1-1.442043700-4900Problem opioid users. Hospital data, Criminal Justice, Infectious Diseases data. Capture-recapture. 7
United Kingdom:::::::
Turkey20080.50.5-1.12585321573-51456Problem opiod users. Drug related deaths. Mortality multiplier.1 ; 2
Norway20083.02.1-3.994506600-12300Problem heroin users. Drug-related deaths, Social services, Surveys. Combined methods5


 n.a. = not available.                                     

 1 - Interval is a 95 % confidence interval.                                     

 2 - Confidence Interval not known.                                     

 3 - Interval is based on a sensitivity analysis.                                     

 4 - Finland: the original age range of study was 15–54, the rate was adjusted to ages 15–64.                                     

 5 - Malta: original age range of study was 12 to 64 years old.                                     

 6 - Latvia: original age range of study was all ages.                                     

 7 - Poland: the original age range of the study refers to all ages.                                     

 * - Central estimate based on average between lower and upper bound of prevalence estimate.                                     

 For further details on methods and data sources/comments see Table PDU-102 and Table PDU-103.                                     

 See also ‘General notes for interpreting data’ on the Explanatory notes and help page                                     


 For bibliographic references see Table PDU-0                                     

 2009 REITOX National Reports - Fonte PDU template                                     

(see the help page for information about formats etc.)

Page last updated: Thursday, 15 July 2010