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Table PDU-1. Estimates of prevalence of problem drug use at national level: Summary Table, 2004-2009, rate per 1000 aged 15-64 [see all tables in this series...]

Part (iii) Problem opioid use

CountryNotesYearCentral rate/1000 ages 15–64Lower and Upper rates/1000 ages 15-64 [1]Estimated Number of usersLower and upper bound of prevalence estimates [1]Target group, data sources and estimation methodsReference
Czech Republic120091.61.5-1.71210011500-12800Problem opioid users. Low-threshold facilities. Treatment Multiplier.7
Germany2 ; 82009n.a.1.6-2.389014-126609Problem opioid users. Drug related deaths, Police. Mortality and Police multiplier.30 ; 31 ; 32
Ireland120067.26.2-8.12079018136-23576Problem opioid users. Treatment data, Hospitals. Capture-recapture.3 ; 4
Greece120093.22.8-3.62409721362-27272Problem drug users. Drug treatment data. Capture-recapture.3
Spain20081.31.2-1.34001537904-42730Problem opioid users. Drug treatement and surveys data. Treatment Multiplier.3
Italy120095.55.3-5.6216000209500-222500Opioid and Cocaine users elegible for treatment. Treatment data. Treatment multiplier27
Cyprus120091.91.6-2.31042868-1286Problem opioid users. Treatment data. Truncated Poisson.8
Lithuania120072.42.3-2.454585314-5605Long duration/regular use of opioids,multiple drug use,other psychoactive substances.Treatment,Criminal Justice data. Capture-recapture.3
Luxembourg20075.95.0-7.619001608-2463Problem heroin users. Drug-related deaths, criminal justice system, drug treatment, infectious diseases registries and methadone programmes. Multi-methods: Treament multiplier, Police multiplier, mortality multiplier, Capture-recapture and Truncated Poisson.4
Hungary12007- users. Opiates other than heroin were excluded. Treatment and police arrest data. Capture-recapture.4
Malta120065.45.1-5.616061541-1685Problem drug users defined as daily heroin users. Treatment data. Capture-recapture.3
Netherlands120081.61.61.61770017300-18100Problem opiates users. National Alcohol and Drugs Information System (LADIS). Treatment multiplier.32
Austria120094.64.44.72577724867-26687(Poly-) drug use including opiates. Treatment and Police data. Capture-recapture.9 ; 10 ; 11
Poland2 ; 720051.00.9-1.12700025000-29000Problem opioid drug users. General population survey and Treatment data. Benchmark method.9
Slovakia120081.31.0-2.548883966-9782Problem opioid users. Low-threshold agencies. Multiplier method.7
Finland1 ; 420051.21.1-1.442043700-4900Problem opioid users. Hospital data, Criminal Justice, Infectious Diseases data. Capture-recapture. 7
United Kingdom:::::::
Turkey20080.50.5-1.12585321573-51456Problem opiod users. Drug related deaths. Mortality multiplier.1 ; 2
Norway20083.02.1-3.994506600-12300Problem heroin users. Drug-related deaths, Social services, Surveys. Combined methods5


 n.a. = not available.                                     

 1 - Interval is a 95 % confidence interval.                                     

 2 - Confidence Interval not known.                                     

 3 - Interval is based on a sensitivity analysis.                                     

 4 - Finland: the original age range of study was 15–54, the rate was adjusted to ages 15–64.                                     

 5 - Malta: original age range of study was 12 to 64 years old.                                     

 6 - Latvia: original age range of study was all ages.                                     

 7 - Poland: the original age range of the study refers to all ages.                                     

 8 - Germany reported more than one estimate for the most recent year. The lowest confidence bound and the highest confidence bound are reported as an indication of the range of possible values. For full details see Table PDU-102  

 For further details on methods and data sources/comments see Table PDU-102 and Table PDU-103.                                     

 See also ‘General notes for interpreting data’ on the Explanatory notes and help page                                     


 For bibliographic references see Table PDU-0                                     

 2010 REITOX National Reports - Fonte PDU template                                     

(see the help page for information about formats etc.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, 19 July 2011